Building materials - different - sale, production
The most complete list of companies and organizations of Uzbekistan located by type of activity: "Building materials - different - sale, production" with phones, addresses and other contact details.
List of companies in the rubric "Building materials - different - sale, production"
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Building materials are the main components of buildings. They are necessary for the construction of any structure.
Classification building materials
There are three directions: natural, artificial and composite. The first ones are obtained directly from nature without modification or processing; artificial ones have been changed compared to their natural state as a result of some process; composite ones consist of two or more components joined together (for example, concrete).
Natural are classified into the following classes: Igneous are formed as a result of cooling and solidification of molten ore. They are divided into two categories: intrusive and extrusive. Intrusive – are formed deep in the earth's crust, and extrusive, are formed on the surface of the earth. Extrusive are further subdivided into volcanic and plutonic. Magmatic are granite, basalt, gabbro, diorite, granodiorite and rhyolite.
Sedimentary rocks are formed from sediments that have been consolidated into solid rock. They include sandstone, limestone and slate. Coarse-grained sedimentary rocks include conglomerate (coarse sandstone consisting of rounded pebbles) and breccia (fine-grained sedimentary rock consisting of angular fragments embedded in a matrix). Fine-grained sedimentary rocks include mudstone (consisting of clay minerals) and siltstone (consisting of silicon dioxide minerals). Carbonate, such as limestone or dolomite, contain carbonate ions derived from dissolved CO2 in seawater; they are formed as a result of chemical precipitation.
Ceramic are inorganic, non-metallic substances with increased resistance to chemical effects and heat shock. They have a high melting point and low density, and they are strengthened by the formation of bonds between atoms. The two types of ceramics are crystal ceramics (granite) and amorphous ceramics (glass).
Crystal ceramics have a highly ordered atomic arrangement and can be divided into two groups: single crystals without defects in structure, such as quartz, sapphire and diamond; and polycrystalline, which have some degree of disordered structure inside each grain, such as feldspar (potassium aluminosilicate), garnet (a mixture of silicates), mica (a combination of silicates) and even some metals, such as copper oxide or aluminum oxide.
Amorphous (non-crystalline) ceramics do not have a regular atomic structure. They can be glassy or vitreous depending on their history; for example, fused quartz is crystalline, but devitrified fused quartz is amorphous. Amorphous ceramics include glasses (vitreous).
Inorganic binders are usually made of Portland cement or geopolymers.
Portland cement is a common binder for concrete. It is made of clinker, which is crushed limestone mixed with clay and gypsum (calcium sulfate). This mixture is heated to about 1450 F (800 C) to obtain a solid cement, which is then cooled and solidified into a rigid mass. This curing process requires the clinker to be ground into a fine powder and then mixed with water to form a paste. It is poured into molds, where it hardens and turns into concrete. When it hardens, it can be extracted and used in projects such as the construction of foundations, bridges, sidewalks. Cement is also used as an ingredient in the solution, it acts as a binder between individual grains of sand, so they do not fall apart when wetted with liquid during mixing with lime mortar. Mortar is a binder that holds together building materials such as stone blocks or bricks.
Concrete— these are composites consisting of a filler bonded together with a binding compound. The word "concrete" comes from the Latin "concretus", which means "to coalesce", probably referring to its ability to bind into one. It is universal, has many varieties, purposes and applications. It is most common in the construction of buildings and other structures, as well as in the paving of roads, driveways and floors. It also has many other uses, such as being used as an ingredient in the manufacture of finished products such as pipes, bricks, blocks and panels. It can be used to create a wide variety of structures, including floor slabs, walls, supports and foundations. It can also be used for the manufacture of floor coverings (for example, terrazzo), stairs and architectural details such as cornices or parapets. It is also used to form retaining walls on slopes too steep to be supported only by earthworks.
Reinforced concrete can be cast into any conceivable shape and is often used where increased strength is required at low cost. It is widely used in civil engineering, such as tunnels and culverts.
Reinforced concrete is classified by design, type and location fittings. It is characterized by compressive strength, but low tensile strength. Thus, it cannot resist the tensile forces. But since steel has tensile strength, it can be used to resist stretching in reinforced concrete. To resist stretching well, the rods are positioned at an angle so that their ends overlap each other when they converge in the middle. Such reinforcement is called vertical or longitudinal reinforcement, because it runs vertically along the entire length of the column or beam. To effectively resist compression, the rods are placed horizontally. Such reinforcement is called horizontal.
Artificial based on inorganic binders made of artificial stone include composites made of inorganic binders, such as cement, lime and gypsum. They are used in the construction of residential and commercial premises, as well as in landscape design. The properties and characteristics of the stone depend on the binder composite used and the proportions in which they are mixed.
Wood is an ancient building material, which is used due to its strength, durability, low average density (400-700 kg/m3), low thermal conductivity, ease of processing, inexpensive cost, etc. Disadvantages: combustibility, susceptibility to decay, hygroscopicity, damage to rot, heterogeneity of the structure of fibers (along and across), etc. It is processed to extend its service life. To protect against rotting - dried, antiseptic, painted, to increase fire resistance; they are covered with flame retardants, sheathed with asbestos cement sheets, steel, etc. Two groups are divided: round and sawn wood. They are used to produce floorboards, parquet rivets, partition parts, door and window frames, baseboards, platbands, formwork, etc.
Ferrous metals (steel and cast iron) have received the greatest use in construction, but in recent years, non-ferrous metals have been increasingly used: aluminum and its alloys with low mass (three times lighter than steel).
Design organizations have been granted the right, based on expediency and efficiency, to decide on the use of reinforced concrete, metal or other building structures, if appropriate resources are available. This was due to the fact that before that metal structures, not always reasonably, were replaced with reinforced concrete. Therefore, now in some cases metal frames of buildings are used, since metal structures are lighter than reinforced concrete.
Metal structures are made of metal of various profiles: channels, I-beams, corners. They are distinguished by numbers indicating its size according to the main measurement (for example, the channel has a height of 18 cm). The industry also produces sheet and strip steel, square, round, wavy, special profiles (for window and lantern covers), pipes of various diameters.
In recent years, profiled sheet has been used for wall panels and coating panels. Pipes, floor slabs, radiators, etc. are made of cast iron. Light frames of buildings, trusses of coverings, window covers, etc. are erected from aluminum and its alloys.
Compositions based on plastic masses. Currently, traditional building materials are being replaced in many areas, since they have such valuable properties as low average density and strength, ease of processing, manufacture of various shapes and purposes. They have chemical resistance, can be of any color and even transparent, they are water-resistant, have low sound and thermal conductivity, etc.
Plastic is easy to machine. Products from it can be glued, welded, drilled, bolted, etc. But it also has disadvantages: it is not fire-resistant, has a high coefficient of thermal expansion. This requires the introduction of additional temperature seams. Despite this, they are very promising and their output is increasing every year.
The following have been used in construction: Fiberglass and fiberglass – consist of fiberglass fillers glued with synthetic polymers. They are produced transparent, translucent and opaque, walls and partitions are made of them. Three-layer wall panels are made of fiberglass (the outer layers are made of fiberglass, the inner ones are heat-insulating);
Chipboard and fiberboard are produced by hot pressing of shavings or organic fibrous materials mixed with polymer. They are used for the device of partitions, walls, ceiling cladding;
Polystyrene facing tiles have durability and water resistance, they are lined with walls in bathrooms, kitchens, etc.;
Foam is used as thermal insulation in enclosing panels, coating plates, as well as for sound insulation;
Wavy and flat fiberglass – the main roofing polymer material. Flat fiberglass is used for the device of anti-aircraft lanterns, which makes it possible to abandon the device of lanterns in industrial buildings;
Relin (rubber linoleum) is used for the installation of floors in dressing rooms, corridors; · Polyvinyl chloride tiles are produced in a wide range, they are easily glued and replaced. They are used for the installation of floors in dressing rooms, pre-shower rooms, dining rooms, etc.;
Polyvinyl acetate floor mastics consist of polyvinyl acetate emulsion, fine sand and mineral pigments. These floors are arranged in industrial premises where the temperature is not higher than 50 degrees Celsius and the normal humidity regime;
Plastic-based products. Molded items are prepared from polyvinyl chloride: baseboards for floors, handrails for stairs, linings for treads, etc. The use saves wood, and also increases the physical and mechanical, general operational and decorative properties.
Thermal insulation used to protect premises and boiler rooms ( equipment , heating mains, etc.) from heat loss. They have porosity, and, consequently, a low average density (from 15 to 70 kg / m3) and low thermal conductivity.
When using thermal insulation for enclosing structures (exterior walls, coatings), their weight decreases, costs are reduced, heat loss decreases, and, consequently, fuel waste for heating.
According to the composition, there are two groups of thermal insulation: organic and inorganic. The group of organic thermal insulation includes various plant raw materials and waste (sawdust, reeds, wood chips, flax, peat, etc.). This includes fiberboard, fibrolite, reed, construction felt (wool for insulation of walls, ceilings, window and door frames); tow (waste from flax processing goes to caulking and sealing of pipe sockets). Their common disadvantage is rapid rotting, as well as ignition at temperatures above 100 degrees Celsius.
The inorganic group includes compounds of mineral origin (asbestos, glass, slag, etc.). These include expanded clay, pumice, foam concrete, aerated concrete, tuff, as well as mineral products made of mineral wool obtained by blowing the melt (shale, blast furnace slag, etc.) with a jet of steam and synthetic resins. The latter are used for thermal insulation, pipelines and as a layer for three-layer reinforced concrete panels. Installation insulation materials (asbestos cardboard and felt, asbestos, etc.) insulate the hot surfaces of the equipment.
Glass wool, polyurethane foam are used as insulation of hot surfaces of equipment and pipes.
Acoustic sound insulation is capable of absorbing sound energy, reducing the strength of the reflected sound and preventing sound transmission to the structure of the structure, divided into sound-absorbing and sound-insulating. Most of them are hygroscopic and not waterproof, so they need to be protected from moisture. Sound insulation is used to reduce the level of shock, vibration and other noises transmitted through the frame. They are elastic materials of fibrous structure (for example, mineral wool plates), elastic gas-filled plastic and rubber gaskets.
Roofing includes roofing steel, asbestos-cement corrugated sheets, asbestos-cement flat plates, as well as a large group of bitumen and tar, which are also waterproofing. Bitumen consists of petroleum bitumen or alloys of petroleum and natural bitumen, tar tar is made of coal tar and shale tar. Bitumen includes: roofing material, pergamine, borulin, waterproofing, etc.
Roofing material is a rolled material made of cardboard impregnated with roofing oil bitumen. On both sides, the roofing material is sprinkled over a layer of bitumen with a thin layer of talc or mica. Roofing material is produced in two types: lining with fine-grained mineral sprinkling, used for the lower layers of rolled roofs, and roofing with coarse-grained mineral sprinkling for the upper layer of rolled roofs.
Pergamin Pergamine, unlike roofing material, does not have mineral sprinkling on a layer of bitumen. Rolls are produced with a width equal to roofing material, the area of one roll is 20 m2. They are used as a pasting vapor barrier of coatings and for the lower layers of roofing material rolled roofs.
Borulin roll waterproofing, obtained by mixing bitumen with dry asbestos fiber on rollers, followed by rolling into a web. Due to its significant plasticity, it is used to isolate bases with a complex profile (pipelines, equipment, etc.).
Waterproofing – this is asbestos cardboard impregnated with petroleum bitumen. It is applicable for waterproofing in underground structures and on flat roofs, since, unlike roofing material and parchment, it does not rot, is flexible, water-resistant and durable. The tar ones include: roofing and non-roofing roofing, etc.
Roofing </ strong> is obtained by impregnating cardboard with tar compounds and sprinkling on one or both sides with a fishing line. The width of the roll is 750- 1050 mm, the area is 10 and 15 m2. It is used for the top layer of rolled roofs made of tar materials. Good waterproofing.
Non-roofing roofing is made without sprinkling, used as an underlying layer for roofing roofing. Tar mastics are used for their stickers. Tar is less resistant than bitumen.
Paint and varnish compositions must protect structural elements from the effects of harmful gases and vapors, as well as atmospheric influences, they protect against fire, decay, give the surface a pleasant appearance, improve sanitary and hygienic conditions in the room. They consist of pigments, binders and solvents.
Pigments – finely ground colored powders. When mixed with liquid or organic solvents (alcohol, oil) they are able to give a certain color to the colorful composition. Pigments are mineral and organic. The most widespread are mineral pigments, as they are more resistant to atmospheric influences, etc. By origin, there are natural (ochre, meerkat) and artificial (whitewash, greens) pigments.
For coloring metal structures use metal powders (aluminum powder on an oil or varnish binder).
Binders are oil (drying oil and oil varnishes), adhesive, made on the basis of adhesives and water, emulsion, obtained by introducing water into oil or vice versa. Drying oil can be natural, semi-natural and artificial. Natural is used only to a limited extent – only for painting critical structures. Semi-natural drying oils are more common.
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